Rabu, 14 September 2011


Earliest known art (Rocks, caves)

Rocks, caves. Date earlier than 40 000 years. Painted pictures of everyday life such as hunting and wild game. Venus of Willendorf sculpture carved from stone depicts pregnant woman. Aegean art also shares same abstract figurative elements. Prehistoric refers to those cultures which have left no written records of their society. Judged as objects in their own right. Interpretation of this art is done primarily in the context of aesthetics tempered by what is known of various tribal societies still in existence.

Ancient art
This period began with the form of written language. Originated from Mesopotamia and Egypt. Their arts as survived and their influence have been transmitted to other cultures and later times. Also provided first records of how artists worked. Ancient roman art depicted gods as idealized human, shown characteristic distinguishing features.

Post –ancient Western art
Byzantine and Gothic art of the Middle Ages, the dominance of the church insisted on the expression of biblical; and material truths. Glory of heavenly world especially through the extensive use of gold in paining which also presented figures in idealized patterned (ie. Flat forms). The Renaissance is the return to valuation of the material world – art forms show the corporeality of the human body and the three dimensional reality of landscape.

Post –ancient Eastern art
Eastern art had a similar style to Western medieval art namely a concentration on surface patterning and local colour – plain colour of an object, such as basic red for a red robe, rather than the modulation of that colour brought about light, shade and reflection. A characteristic of this style is that the local colour is often defined by an outline (a contemporary equivalent is the cartoon. This is evident in the art of India, Tibet and Japan. Religious Islamic art forbids iconography, and expresses religious ideas through geometry instead.

Contemporary art
Narrative of endless possibilities and the search for new standards, each being torn down in succession by the next. Parameters of Impressionism, expressionism, fauvism, cubism, Dadaism, surrealism, etc cannot be maintained very much beyond the time of their invention. Increasing global interaction during this time saw an equivalent influence of other cultures into Western art, such as Pablo Picasso. Japanese woodblock prints (influenced Renaissance draftsmanship) had an immense influence on impressionism and subsequently development. African fetish sculptures were taken up by Picasso and to some extent by Matisse.

The idealistic search for truth, gave way in the latter half of the 20th century to a realization of its unattainability. Relatively was accepted as an unavoidable truth, which led to the postmodern period, where cultures of the world and of history are seen as changing forms, which can be appreciated and drawn from only with irony.

Selasa, 23 Agustus 2011

History of music

Music is considered to predate language (and certainly predates written language) by certain historians and is found in every known culture, past and present, varying between times and places.

A culture’s music is influenced by all other aspects of that culture, including social and economic organization, climate, and access to technology.

The emotions and ideas that music expresses, the situations in which music is played and listened to, and the attitudes toward music players and composers all vary between regions and periods.

We will be approaching the history of music from a chronological perspective.

Prehistoric music

The development of music among humans occurred against the backdrop of natural sounds.

Prehistoric music (previously called primitive music) is a term in the history of music for all music produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. Prehistoric music is followed by ancient music in most of Europe (1500 BCE) and later musics in subsequent European-influenced areas, but still exists in isolated areas.

Prehistoric music thus technically includes all of the world's music that has existed before the advent of any currently-extant historical sources concerning that music, for example, traditional Native American music of preliterate tribes and Australian Aboriginal music. However, it is more common to refer to the "prehistoric" music of non-European continents – especially that which still survives – as folk, indigenous or traditional music.

Prehistoric musical instruments

It is possible that the first musical instrument was the human voice itself, which can make a vast array of sounds, from singing, humming and whistling through to clicking, coughing and yawning.

Prehistoric music, once more commonly called primitive music, is the name given to all music produced in preliterate cultures.

Traditional Native American and Australian Aboriginal music could be called prehistoric, but the term is commonly used to refer to the music in Europe before the development of writing there. It is more common to call the “prehistoric” music of non-European continents- especially that which still survives folk, indigenous, or traditional music.

Music in ancient civilizations/ Ancient music is music that developed in literate cultures, replacing prehistoric music.

Ancient music refers to the various musical systems that were developed across various geographical regions such as Mesopotamia, Egypt, Persia, India, China, Greece and Rome. Ancient music is designated by the characterization of the basic audible tones and scales. It may have been transmitted through oral or written

The prehistoric era is considered to have ended with the development of writing, and with if, by definition, prehistoric music. “Ancient music” is the name given to the music that followed.

The “oldest known song” was written in cuneiform, dating to +4000 years ago. It was deciphered by Prof. Anne Draffkorn Kilmer (University of Calif. At Berkeley), and was demonstrated to be composed in harmonies of thirds, like ancient English gymel (Kilmer, Crocker Brown, Sound from Silence, 1976, Bit Enki, Berkeley, Calif., LCC 76-16729), and also was written using a Pythagorean tuning of the diatonic scale.

Double pipes, such as used by the ancient Greeks, and ancient bagpipes, as well as a review of ancient drawings on vases and walls, etc., and ancient writings (such as in Aristotle, Problems, Book XIX. 12) which describe musical techniques of the time, indicate polyphony.


Seven holed flutes and various stringed instruments (ie The lyre- well known for its use in Greek) were used during this period.

Baroque music

  • Instrumental music became dominant in the Baroque and most major music forms were defined.
  • Much Baroque music was designed for improvisation with figured bass provide by the composer for the performer to flesh out the ornament.
  • The keyboard – harpsichord, was dominant instrument opened up the possibilities of playing in all keys and of modulation.
  • Much Baroque music featured a basso continuo consisting of keyboard, either harpsichord or organ and a bass instrument, such as viola da gamba or bassoon.
  • 3 outstanding composers were Bach, Handel and Vivalsi

Romantic music

  • Music became more expressive and emotional, expanding to encompass literature, art and philosophy.
  • Famous early Romantic composers include Schumann, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Bellini, and Berlioz.

20th century music

20th century music is defined by the sudden emergence of advanced technology for recording and distributing music as well as dramatic innovations in musical forms and styles. Because music was no longer limited to concerts, opera-houses, clubs, and domestic music-making, it became possible for music artists to quickly gain global recognition and influence. Twentieth-century music brought new freedom and wide experimentation with new musical styles and forms that challenged the accepted rules of music of earlier periods. Faster modes of transportation allowed musicians and fans to travel more widely to perform or listen. Amplification permitted giant concerts to be heard by those with the least expensive tickets, and the inexpensive reproduction and transmission or broadcast of music gave rich and poor alike nearly equal access to high quality music performances.

  • Radio gained popularity worldwide and new media and technologies were developed to record, capture and distribute music.
  • Music artists gained fame nationwide and sometimes worldwide because music was no longer limited to concerts and clubs.
  • Audiences were exposed to a wider range of music than ever before.
  • Music performances became increasingly visual with the broadcast and recording of music videos and concerts.
  • Music of all kinds became increasingly portable.
  • 20th century music brought a new freedom and wide experimentation with new musical styles and forms that challenged the accepted rules of music of earlier periods.
  • The invention of electronic instruments and synthesizer in the mid 20th century revolutionised popular music and accelerated the development of new forms of music.

Music history, sometimes called historical musicology, is the highly diverse subfield of the broader discipline of musicology that studies the composition, performance, reception, and criticism of music over time.

Medieval music

This is European music written during the Middle Ages. This era begins with the fall of the Roman Empire and ends in approximately the early fifteenth century.

  • Instruments

The flute (eg whistle, gemshorn, recorder, tin whistle/penny whistle, tonette, fujara, and ocarina) is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening. According to the instrument classification of Hornbostel-Sachs, flutes are categorized as Edge-blown aerophones.

A musician who plays the flute can be referred to as a flute player, a flautist, a flutist, or less commonly a fluter. Aside from the voice, flutes are the earliest known musical instruments.

String instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. In the Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification, used in organology, they are called chordophones. The most common string instruments in the string family are guitar, electric bass, violin, viola, cello, double bass, banjo, mandolin, ukulele, and harp.

    • The guitar is a plucked string instrument, usually played with fingers or a pick. The guitar consists of a body with a rigid neck to which the strings, generally six in number, are attached. Guitars are traditionally constructed of various woods and strung with animal gut or, more recently, with either nylon or steel strings. Some modern guitars are made of polycarbonate materials. Guitars are made and repaired by luthiers. There are two primary families of guitars: acoustic and electric.

o The bass guitar[1] (also called electric bass,or simply bass; /ˈbeɪs/) is a stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers or thumb (by plucking, slapping, popping, tapping, or thumping), or by using a pick. The bass guitar is similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, but with a longer neck and scale length, and four, five, or six strings.

Medieval music was both sacred and secular

Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance.

Instruments of the Renaissance


Brass instruments in the Renaissance were traditionally played by professionals. Some of the more common brass instruments that were played:

  • Slide trumpet: Similar to the trombone of today except that instead of a section of the body sliding, only a small part of the body near the mouthpiece and the mouthpiece itself is stationary. Also the body was an S-shape so it was rather unwieldy, but was suitable for the slow dance music which it was most commonly used for.
  • Cornett: Made of wood and was played like the recorder (will be mentioned at greater length later on) but blown like a trumpet. It was commonly made in several sizes, the largest was called the serpent. The serpent became practically the only cornetto used by the early 17th century while other ranges were replaced by the violin. It was said to be the closest instrument to the human voice with the ability to use dynamics and expression.
  • Trumpet: Early trumpets had no valves, and were limited to the tones present in the overtone series. They were also made in different sizes. Although commonly depicted being used by angels, their use in churches was limited, a prominent exception being the music of the Venetian School. They were most commonly used in the military and for the announcement of royalty. Period trumpets were found to have two rings soldered to them, one near the mouthpiece and another near the bell.
  • Sackbut (sometimes sackbutt or sagbutt): A different name for the trombone,[1] which replaced the slide trumpet by the end of the 15th century. Sackbuts were used almost exclusively in church music and faced behind the player.



The tambourine or marine (commonly called tambo) is a musical instrument of the percussion family consisting of a frame, often of wood or plastic, with pairs of small metal jingles, called "zils". Classically the term tambourine denotes an instrument with a drumhead, though some variants may not have a head at all. Tambourines are often used with regular percussion sets. They can be mounted, but position is largely down to preference.

Senin, 09 Mei 2011

Music industry

Music is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, or as an entertainment product for the marketplace.
Amateur musicians compose and perform music for their own pleasure, and they do not attempt to derive their income from music.

Professional musicians are employed by a range of institutions and organizations, including churches and synagogues, symphony orchestras, broadcasting or film production companies, and music schools. Professional musicians work as freelancers, seeking contracts and engagements in a variety of settings.

Although amateur musicians differ from professional musicians in that amateur musicians have a non-musical source of income, there are often many links between amateur musicians and professional musicians. Beginning amateur musicians take lessons with professional musicians. In community setting, advanced amateur musicians perform with professional musicians in a variety of ensembles and orchestras. In some rare cases, amateur musicians attain a professional level of competence, and they are able to perform in professional performance settings.

A distinction is often made between music performed for the benefit of a live audience and music that is performed for the purpose of being recorded and distributed through the music retail system or the broadcasting system. However, there are also many cases where a live performance in front of an audience is recorded and distributed (or broadcast).

Performance is the execution of music. While music cannot technically exist without performance, we generally think of performance as being the exhibition of a musical work before an audience. A musical work is performed once its structure and instrumentation are satisfactory to its creators; however, as it gets performed more and more over time, it can evolve and change in any number of ways.

A performance can either be rehearsed or improvised. Improvisation is a musical idea created on the sport, with no prior premeditation or an idea until it has achieved cohesion. Musicians will generally add improvisation to a well- rehearsed idea to create a unique performance.
Solo and ensemble performances

Many cultures include strong traditions of solo and performance, such as in Indian classical music, and in the Western Art music tradition. Other cultures, such as in Bali, include strong traditions of group performance. All cultures include a mixture of both, and performance may range from improvised solo playing for one’s enjoyment to highly planned and organized performance rituals such as the modern classical concert, religious processions, music festival or music competitions.

Chamber music, which is music for a small ensemble with only a few of each type of instrument, is often seen as more intimate than symphonic works. A performer may be referred to as a musician.

Musical notation
When music is written down, the pitches and rhythm of the music is notated, along with instructions on how to perform the music. This is referred to as music notation,
and the study of how to read notation involves music theory, harmony, the study of performance practice, and in some cases an understanding of historical performance methods.

Written notation varies with style and period of music. In Western Art music, the most common type of written notation are scores, which include all the music parts of an ensemble peace, and parts, which are the music notation for the individual performers or singers. In popular music, jazz, and blues, the standard musical notation is the lead sheet, which notates the melody, chords, lyrics (if it is a vocal piece), and structure of the music. Nonetheless, scores and parts are also used in popular music and jazz, particularly in large ensembles such as jazz “big bands”.

In popular music, guitarist and electric bass players often read music notated in tablature, which indicates the location of the notes to be played on the instrument using a diagram of the guitar or bass fingerboard. Tabulature was also used in the Baroque era to notate music for the lute, a stringed, fretted instrument.

Notated music is produced as sheet music for the performers to read from. To perform music from notation requires an understanding of both the musical style and the performance practice that is associated with a piece of music or genre.

Musical composition is a term that describes the composition of a piece of music. Methods of composition vary widely from one composer to another, however in analyzing music all forms spontaneous, trained, or untrained are built from elements comprising a musical piece. Music can be composed for repeated performance or it can be improvised; composed on the spot. The music can be performed entirely from memory, from a written system of musical notation, or some combination of both. Study of composition has traditionally been dominated by examination of methods and practice of Western classical music, but the definition of composition is broad enough to include spontaneously improvised works like those of free jazz performers and African drummers.

What is important in understanding the composition of a piece is singling out its elements. An understanding of music’s formal elements can be helpful in deciphering exactly how a piece is constructed. A universal element of music is how sounds occur in time, which is referred to as the rhythm of a piece of music.

When a piece appears to have a changing time-feel, it is considered to be in rubato time, an Italian expression that indicates that the tempo of the piece changes to suit the expressive intent of the performer. Even random placement of random sounds, which occurs in musical montage, occurs within some kind of time, and thus employs time as a musical element.

Media and technology
The music that composers make can be heard through several media, the most traditional way is to hear it live, in the presence, or as one of the musicians. Live music can also be broadcast over the radio, television or the internet. Some musical styles focus on producing a sound for a performance, while others focus on producing a recording which mixes together sounds which were never played “live”. Recording, even of styles which are essentially live, often uses the ability to edit and splice to produce recordings which are considered better than the actual performance.

Since legislation introduced to help protect performers, composers, publishers and producers, including the Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 in United States, and the 1979 revised Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Work in the United Kingdom, recordings and live performances have also become more accessible through computers, devices and internet in a form that is commonly known as music-on-demand.

Sometimes, live performances incorporate prerecorded sounds. Eg a DJ uses disk records for scratching, and some 20th century works have a solo for an instrument or voice that is performed along with music that is prerecorded onto a tape. Computers and many keyboards can be programmed to produce and play MIDI music. Audiences can also become performers by participating in Karaoke, an activity of Japanese origin which centres around a device that plays voice-eliminated versions of well-known songs. Most Karaoke machines also have video screens that show lyrics to songs being performed; performers can follow the lyrics as they sing over the instrumental tracks.

Music as part of general education
The incorporation of music training from preschool to postsecondary education is common in North America and Europe, because involvement in music is thought to teach basic skills such as concentration, counting, listening, and cooperation while also promoting understanding of language, and creating an environment more conducive to learning in other areas. In elementary schools, children often learn to play instruments such as the recorder, sing in small choirs, and learn about the history of Western art music. In secondary schools students may have the opportunity to perform some type of musical ensembles, such as choirs, marching bands, concert bands, jazz bands, or orchestras, and in some schools systems, music classes may be available. Some students also take private music lessons with a teacher. Amateur musicians typically take lessons to learn musical rudiments and biginner to intermediate- level musical techniques.

At the university level, students in most arts and humanities programs can credit for taking music course, which typically take the form of an overview course on the history of music, or a music appreciation course that focuses on listening to music and learning about different musical styles. In addition, most North American and European universities have some type of musical ensembles that non-music students are able to participate in, such as choirs, marching bands, or orchestras. The study of Western art music is increasingly common outside of North America and Europe, such as STSI in Bali, or the classical music programs that are available in Asian countries such as South Korea, Japan, and China. At the same time, Western university and colleges are widening their curriculum to include music on non-Western cultures, such as the music of Africa or Bali (eg Gamelan music).

Use in therapy
Music is sometimes used in treating mental illness.


  • Facilitates social change

  • Can improve performance

  • Help us to remember

  • Play an important role in human development

  • Helps in healing

  • Music is powerful at the level of the social group because it facilitates communication which goes beyond words, induces shared emotional reactions and supports the development of group identity

  • Music has powerful therapeutic effects which can be achieved through listening or active music making.

  • Music can promote relaxation, alleviate anxiety and pain, promote appropriate behavior in vulnerable groups and enhance the quality of life of those who are beyond medical help

  • Music can play an important part in enhancing human development in the early years.
    People can use music in their lives to manipulate their moods, alleviate the boredom of tedious tasks, and create environments appropriate for particular social events.

  • Music can influence our behavior in ways which are beyond our conscious awareness. Knowledge of these effects can be used to manipulate our work and purchasing behavior.

Kamis, 21 April 2011

The importance of science and technology

Science (from Latin: scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise of gathering knowledge about nature and organizing and condensing that knowledge into testable laws and theories (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia).

Technology is a term referring to whatever can be said at any particular historical period, concerning the state of the art in the whole general field of practical know-how and tool use. It therefore encompasses all that can be said about arts, crafts, professions, applied sciences, and skills.

Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia).
The word "technology" can also be used to refer to a collection of techniques. In this context, it is the current state of humanity's knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy wants; it includes technical methods, skills, processes, techniques, tools and raw materials. When combined with another term, such as "medical technology" or "space technology", it refers to the state of the respective field's knowledge and tools. "State-of-the-art technology" refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field.

Science and technology is a term of art used to encompass the relationship between science and technology. It frequently appears within titles of academic disciplines (science and technology studies) and government offices.
Science and technology studies (STS) is the study of how social, political, and cultural values affect scientific research and technological innovation, and how these in turn affect society, politics, and culture.

The importance of Science and technology
The importance of science and technology in contemporary society is demonstrated by the unconscious use of it in our daily lives. We often take it for granted. And we often have no idea how science and technology really affect us! We live and work in structures given to us by science and technology. We are transported around on the ground, across water and in the air by vehicles that are the direct result of science and technology. Modern societies are literally built on science and technology. When we turn on the tap, flush the toilet, or flip a light switch, we are accessing science and technology.

We constantly use cell phones and computers, which are gifts of science and technology. And there are myriad other electrical devices that science and technology have given us. Medicine is wall-to-wall science and technology, and anyone who is more than mildly ill or has been injured in more than a minor way will benefit from science and technology. No food in modern society is not touched by science and technology, either in its origin, packaging and processing, transportation or vending.

Scientific and Technological advances
Science and technology must be aware and develop to play the dynamic role for socio-economic development, setting up the scientific background for decision and policies for the government, contributing to set up the competition capacity for the economy, to successfully implement the industrialization and modernization career for the country. Meanwhile setting up the science and technology market, to facilitate the science and technology in contributing effectively in the socio-economical development; thus improve the science and technology potential.

  • Science and technology development must meet the objective of sustainable socio-economical development, that fast economical growth must come along environmental protection, social equality and maintaining national defence security.

  • Create conditions economic, administration and law to enable the sciences and technology to become the power for the provincial socio-economic development.

    Implement industrialization and modernization the agriculture and rural area, forcing up the processing activities and developing professional villages.
    Selecting the suitable technology, solve the sciences and technology issues.

    The natural resources
    Soil, mineral products, biology, labour, economic and humanity.

Benefits of Science and technology
Science and technology are making advances at an amazing rate. From telephones to the internet, calculators to computers, cars to rockets and satellites, we are submerged in a sea of discoveries and inventions made possible by science. Fields like medicine and communication have made inroads into our cultures and thus our lifestyles.

People have started taking charge of their own health and life. Therefore, the life expectancy of a person living in the nineties is about twenty years more on an average from that which people enjoyed at the start of the last century. By the virtue of medicine, not only does a person live longer but also lives his life to the fullest in the best of health.

Deadly diseases such as small pox, plague and polio have caused a large number of epidemics resulting in major loss of life. Researches and scientific effort led many scientists to find cures or preventive vaccinations for these life-threatening diseases. Today these diseases have been eradicated.

Thanks to science, millions of lives have been saved from the clutches of these evils. The benefits of discovery of these vaccines needed to be passed on to the public. To cater to the huge human population, technology in this field evolved side by side the scientific progress. Better techniques resulted in faster and more efficient development of these scientific discoveries.

Advances in medicine
The field of medicine today is well equipped to cope with the health problems faced by man. Science behind medicine has led to awareness and preventive education among the public. Certain procedures propagated through these awareness programs such as regular exercising and taking regular dose of insulin for diabetes patients help maintain the health of today’s patients. Insulin can now be synthetically prepared in our laboratories using bacteria cultures. Antibiotics and other medicines sometimes help us fight life-threatening conditions. In short, the patients are often handed a second chance to live. We are no longer at the complete mercy of nature. The right to choose and to take control of one’s life has been passed down to the individual.

Medical technology has reached a point where organs can be transplanted from one individual to another. Many see red in such an act as desecration of a human body. However, by donating his or her organs to give a new lease of life to someone else, the person found a meaning not only in his lifetime but also in his death.

Communication is one more area where technology has undergone a rapid transformation. A century ago, telegraphs were regarded as luxuries and one of the few modes of communication with the rest of the world. Today, the scene appears to be quite different. From telephones and faxes to internet, email and mobile phones, technology has connected the whole world into a global village.

Technology has helped increased the speed of communication whereas at the same time the cost for such a proposition have greatly reduced. People who are separated from their friends and relative by a distance of thousands of miles can now get their message around the globe in a matter of seconds using technological instruments such as the phone and emails.

Computers have often been cited as the greatest boon offered by technology to humanity. Its entry revolutionized the whole world. Great pieces of data could be store with comparative ease. Problems, which would have taken years to solve manually, took a couple of days for the computer to work out. This led to an amazing rate of progress achieved in a considerably short period.

Science and technology also helps a nation protect its citizens from any natural or man-made disasters such as earthquake, tornadoes or even war. In such events the people are warned in advance and timely action is taken to guarantee the lives of millions of people every year. Weather-man reminds us how technology has improved such that humans can predict the weather of the next fifteen days. Weapons built by the nations for protection and serving their integrity help bring about peace amongst rival counties as no one in such a case is ready to face the destruction caused by them and thus shrink of thought of war on an enemy.

Kamis, 24 Februari 2011


Information work is a service profession. It is therefore important for information worker to understand society and its dynamics. This understanding enhance their ability to organize, retrieve and disseminate information to user populations in different information environments.

Society – group of people who live in a particular geographical area, are subject to a common system of political authority, are subject to a common system of political authority, and are aware of having a distinct identity from other groups around them (Giddens 1997).

Community (Unity of people smaller than a society) – Cluster of people sharing residential space, proximity in a geophysical location or area, also sharing networks of social interaction.

These are people and groups that influence our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behavior. These agents include family, schools, church, the work place, the state, peer groups and the mass media.

The family- “a group of persons directly linked by kin connections, the adult members of which assume responsibility for caring for children” (Giddens 1997:140).
The family is the primary agent of socialization because it is the child’s first encounter with society. From birth the child is exposed to traditions as well as societal norms through the family. Families are part of society therefore are also responsible for inculcating society’s norms and values to their members. Some families take the responsibility of inculcating religious norms.

A nuclear family is where two adults living together in a household with their own or adopted children;

An extended family consists of close relatives other than a married couple and children live in the same household or in close and continuous relationship with one another. Traditional societies consisted of extended families where responsibilities were shared among members. e.g. looking after the economic, educational and emotional needs of family members was shared among the various members of the extended family.

Functions of the family
Human beings are social beings, we need other humans for our survival. The family the family is the foundation for human survival. The following are some of the functions of the family:
Ø To ensure that babies survive to become adults;
Ø To regulate sexual activity;
Ø To ensure that children are properly socialized according to acceptable norms and values of society;
Ø To provide and support for other family members;
Ø To satisfy our emotional needs for love and security;
Ø To provide us with a sense of identity and belonging (emotionally, and socially).

Parenting styles
Parenting style is affected by both the parents' and children's temperaments, and is largely based on the influence of one’s own parents and culture. Most parents learn parenting practices from their own parents — some they accept, some they discard.
Parents and parenting styles play an important role in the socialization process.

Authoritarian parents are strict and have a set standard of behavior that is not negotiable. Children are expected to do as they are told without questioning any decisions made by their parents. They regard obedience and respective as very important. They do not display love and warmth in their dealings with their children although they take their parent responsibility seriously. As adults, children from authoritarian families tend to be shy, withdrawn and unfriendly in social situations.
Authoritative parenting/Balanced parenting
The parents are demanding. This type is characterized by a child-centered approach that holds high expectations of maturity, compliance to parental rules and directions, while allowing for an open dialogue about those rules and behaviors between the parent and child. This type of parenting encourages children to be independent but still places limits and controls on their actions." "Extensive verbal give-and-take is allowed, and parents are warm and nurturant toward the child." Authoritative parents are not usually as controlling, allowing the child to explore more freely, thus having them make their own decisions based upon their own reasoning. Authoritative parents set limits and demand maturity, but when punishing a child, the parent will explain his or her motive for their punishment. "Their punishments are measured and consistent in discipline, not harsh or arbitrary. Parents will set clear standards for their children, monitor limits that they set, and also allow children to develop autonomy. They also expect mature, independent, and age-appropriate behavior of children." They are attentive to their children’s needs and concerns, and will typically forgive and teach instead of punishing if a child falls short. This is supposed to result in children having a higher self esteem and independence because of the democratic give-take nature of the authoritative parenting style. This is the most recommended style of parenting by child-rearing experts.

Indulgent parenting/Permissive parenting
The parent is responsive but not demanding.
Indulgent parenting, also called permissive, nondirective or lenient, is characterized as having few behavioral expectations for the child. "Indulgent parenting is a style of parenting in which parents are very involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them. Parents are nurturing and accepting, and are very responsive to the child's needs and wishes. Indulgent parents do not require children to regulate themselves or behave appropriately.
Children of permissive parents may tend to be more impulsive, and as adolescents, may engage more in misconduct and drug use. "Children never learn to control their own behavior and always expect to get their way." But in the better cases they are emotionally secure, independent and are willing to learn and accept defeat. They are able to live life without the help of someone else.

Neglectful parenting/Uninvolved parenting
The parent is neither demanding nor responsive.
Neglectful parenting is also called uninvolved, detached, dismissive or hands-off. The parents are low in warmth and control, are generally not involved in their child's life, are disengaged, undemanding, low in responsiveness, and do not set limits. Parents are emotionally unsupportive of their children, but will still provide their basic needs.
Children whose parents are neglectful develop the sense that other aspects of the parents’ lives are more important than they are. Children often display contradictory behavior, and are emotionally withdrawn from social situations. This disturbed attachment also impacts relationships later on in life. In adolescence, they may show patterns of truancy and delinquency.
- learned, socially acquired traditions of thought and behaviour. It comprises of values, norms and material goods that characterize a particular group.

Values – ideas that individuals or group hold about what is desirable, proper and good. Values are strongly influenced by culture.

Norms – rules of conduct that specify appropriate behaviour in a social context. Failure to conform to norms my lead to sanctions (punishment of some kind). Norms may be applicable to all members of society or be specific to a particular culture. While adherence to norms is an effective means of preserving cultural practices, in some extreme it may result in aggression or conflict with laws of countries.

An important way of acquiring culture is through socialization which is the process through which people develop an awareness of social norms and values, and achieve a distinct sense of self (who they are). Socialization enables individuals to learn their culture and how to live within it. Therefore socialization has the following two important functions:
  • To provide the individual with the necessary resources or tools (norms, beliefs, values, etc) for acting and participating within society.
  • To orientate individual members of society by communicating the contents of culture from one generation to the other, thus enduring social and cultural continuity. We can then say socialization is a vehicle for enculturation.

This is the process of learning through experience and observation norms, beliefs and values of one’s culture. It is the process of acquiring one’s culture.
It is not possible to learn and maintain everything about one’s culture because of other factors in society. E.g. technology is playing a big role in changing some of the ways. Children are exposed to life-styles and cultures that are very different from what their parents were exposed to because of television, thus they learn things that are foreign to their cultures. This leads to acculturation.

This is a process in which members of one cultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviors of another group. Although acculturation is usually in the direction of a minority group adopting habits and language patterns of the dominant group, acculturation ban be reciprocal. That is dominant group also adopts patterns typical of the minority group.

The work place
Ethics relates to moral issues and choice and deals with right and wrong behavior. Ethical behavior is determined by various factors such as cultural, organizational and external factors. Cultural factors include the family, community, religion, etc. organizational factors include policies, practices, organizational codes of behavior, etc. external factors include political, legal and economic developments. All these factors work together in guiding and shaping workplace behavior. these factors make it difficult to have a universal agreement on what is right or wrong. Organizations usually have code of conduct that employees are expected to observe. Various professions also have their own codes of conduct which members must observe. Failure to observe these could result in disciplinary actions against such members or even expulsion from the profession.

Ethical issues in the workplace include:
· Working conditions;
· Sexual harassment;
· Employee privacy issues and others.

An example of an ethical issue is issues around working conditions relate to hours of work, minimum pay, safety in the workplace, and others.

Sexual harassments in the workplace is defined as unwelcome sexual advances for sexual favours, or verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature. Sexual harassment issues are particularly difficult to deal with because of cultural differences especially in multicultural societies. In South Africa most organizations have guidelines for employees regarding what is regarded as sexual harassment. It is important that each employee familiarize him/herself with these especially because what is accepted culturally might be very different from what the workplace accepts.
Questions related to employee privacy are:

  • Is it right for and employer to listen to telephone conversations or intercept email message of employees if they suspect wrong doing on the part of these employees?
  • Is it right to make use of workplace facilities for personal needs? Does the employer have a right to monitor and take action against such activities?
  • Is it ethical to work less time than you are required to? To what extent does the employer have a right to check and take action?

Senin, 21 Februari 2011

Theories of knowledge

Theories of knowledge
What is knowledge?
How is knowledge acquired?
What do people know?
How do we know what we know?

Epistemology is concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge, and whether knowledge is possible. Among its central concerns has been the challenge posed by skepticism and the relationships between truth, belief, and justification.

Specific theories of knowledge acquisition
is one of several competing views about how we know "things", part of the branch of philosophy called epistemology, or "the Theory of Knowledge". Empiricism emphasizes the role of experience and evidence, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. In the philosophy of science, empiricism emphasizes those aspects of scientific knowledge that are closely related to evidence, especially as discovered in experiments. It is a fundamental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and theories must be tested against observations of the natural world, rather than resting solely on a priori reasoning, intuition, or revelation. Hence, science is considered to be methodologically empirical in nature. These philosophers believe that for any knowledge to be properly inferred or deduced, it is to be gained ultimately from one's sense-based experience.

Specific theories of knowledge acquisition
Empiricism - is generally a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially experience based on perceptual observations by the five senses. Empiricism emphasizes the role of experience and evidence, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas (except in so far as these might be inferred from empirical reasoning, as in the case of genetic predisposition).

Rationalism - is "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification" (Lacey 286).
Knowledge is primarily (at least in some areas) acquired by a priori processes(knowledge that is known independently of experience). A theory in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive" They believe that before humans can understand the world, they first need to understand themselves; the only way to accomplish that is with rational thought.
Man is composed of two parts, a body and a soul. The soul itself has two principal parts, an Irrational part, which is the emotions and desires, and a Rational part, which is our true self. In our everyday experience, the irrational soul is drawn down into the physical body by its desires and merged with it, so that our perception of the world is limited to that delivered by the physical senses. The rational soul is beyond our conscious knowledge, but sometimes communicates via images, dreams, and other means.
Rationalism is a method or a theory in which the creation of truth is not sensory by intellectual and deductive. There is a knowledge that is innate or born inside of us, that is to say that there are forms of knowledge that exists within our minds from the time we are born.

Constructivists maintain that scientific knowledge is constructed by scientists and not discovered from the world. Categories of knowledge and reality are actively created by social relationships and interactions. These interactions also alter the way in which scientific episteme is organized.
They argue that one must already have Reality in mind—that is, one must already know what Reality consists of—in order to confirm when one has at last "hit bottom.

Analytic-synthetic distinction-is a conceptual distinction, used primarily in philosophy to distinguish propositions into two types: analytic propositions and synthetic propositions.
Analytic propositions are those which are true simply by virtue of their meaning while synthetic propositions are not; however, philosophers have used the terms in very different ways.
Other philosopher believed that:
analytic proposition: a proposition whose predicate concept is contained in its subject concept
"All bachelors are unmarried."
"All triangles have three sides."

synthetic proposition: a proposition whose predicate concept is not contained in its subject concept.
"All bachelors are unhappy."
"All creatures with hearts have kidneys."
Some propositions are such that we appear to be justified in believing them just so far as we understand their meaning. For example, consider, "My father's brother is my uncle." We seem to be justified in believing it to be true by virtue of our knowledge of what its terms mean. Philosophers call such propositions "analytic." Synthetic propositions, on the other hand, have distinct subjects and predicates. An example of a synthetic proposition would be, "My father's brother has black hair." Kant held that all mathematical propositions are synthetic.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Skepticism – the belief that some or all human knowledge is impossible. Skeptics argue it is better to suspend belief than to rely on the products of reason that is doubtable. Denies the possibility of a complete or genuine knowledge of an objective world.
Skepticism is related to the question of whether certain knowledge is possible. Skeptics argue that the belief in something does not necessarily justify an assertion of knowledge of it.

Traanscendental idealism - a doctrine founded by German philosopher Immanuel Kant in the eighteenth century. Kant's doctrine maintains that human experience of things are similar to the way they appear to us — implying a fundamentally subject-based component, rather than being an activity that directly (and therefore without any obvious causal link) comprehends the things as they are in and of themselves.