Selasa, 15 Februari 2011

Types of Knowledge

Knowledge is the expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education. or it is the information; awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation (Oxford English Dictionary).

In order for knowledge to exist there must be data and information.
Information is a message received and understood.
Data: means groups of information that represent the qualitative or quantitative attributes of a variable or set of variables.

Data is the lowest level of abstraction, information is the next level, and finally, knowledge is the highest level among all three. Data on its own carries no meaning. In order for data to become information, it must be interpreted and take on a meaning.

  • Explicit knowledge - that has been or can be articulated, codified, and stored in certain materials. It can be readily transmitted to others. The information contained in encyclopaedias (including Wikipedia) are good examples of explicit knowledge.
    Explicit knowledge is the things that an individual knows and can easily write down. This type of knowledge often comes through learning by observation, reading or group discussion. Often this type of knowledge can be made into print or electronic guides or stored on an intranet or database. For example the exact sequence of steps that needs to be taken to check the receipt of journals within your information service.
  • Tacit knowledge - knowledge that is difficult to transfer to another person by means of writing it down or verbalizing it.
    + people are not often aware of the knowledge they possess or how it can be valuable to others.
    + described as “know-how” as opposed to “know-what” or “know who”. e.g. how to ride a bike
    Tacit knowledge is implicit and is not necessarily or easily articulated in formal documents. The owner of this knowledge is aware that they have it and it is gained over a period of time from experiences and includes insights, emotions and the concept of 'how things are done around here'. People build up tacit knowledge during time spent in a role or within an organisation. New employees begin to build up tacit knowledge when the join a new organisation. It is often hard to share with others.Logical knowledge is the knowledge that is the results of the understanding of the relationship of ideas to one another.Systematic knowledge is knowledge of mathematics and geometry which is a result of leaning a system of words, or symbols and how they relate to one another and the rules of operating in that system.Indigenous knowledge is local knowledge. it is knowledge that is unique to a given culture or society. It is the basis for local-level decision-making in agriculture, health care, food preparation, education etc

http://www.ics.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/rlos/wakefield/km/html/page_06.htm

Personal Knowledge or knowledge by acquaintance.
Knowledge in this sense is to do with being familiar with something. In order to know Amy, one must have met her. In order to know fear, one must have experienced it.
In each of these cases, the word "know" is being use to refer to knowledge by acquaintance.


Propositional Knowledge or knowledge of facts. When we say things like "I know that the internal angles of a triangle add up to 180 degress" or "I know that it was you that ate my sandwich", we are claiming to have propositional knowledge.

Logical knowledge is the knowledge that is the results of the understanding of the relationship of ideas to one another.

Systematic knowledge is knowledge of mathematics and geometry which is a result of leaning a system of words, or symbols and how they relate to one another and the rules of operating in that system.

Indigenous knowledge is local knowledge. it is knowledge that is unique to a given culture or society. It is the basis for local-level decision-making in agriculture, health care, food preparation, education etc.

http://www.ics.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/rlos/wakefield/km/html/page_06.htm

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